The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225/Revision 5), or NSS 13, was published in 2011 as the fifth revision of INFCIRC/225, since it was first issued in 1975. NSS 13 provides essential guidance in the implementation of the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and its Amendment and it is a key guidance document for many States’ physical protection regulations for nuclear material and nuclear facilities. Now, more than 10 years since its last revision, the international community is witnessing new and emerging threats, as well as emerging technologies that have an impact on nuclear security worldwide. In 2019, the IAEA initiated a process for States to discuss the need to review NSS 13 (INFICRC/225/Revision 5). Following a series of virtual consultations, Member States made recommendations to the Nuclear Security Guidance Committee (NSGC) and identified a series of topics that should be discussed in case of a revision, in particular computer security, new and emerging threats, and the safety and security (and security and safeguards) interface. Furthermore, the First Conference of the Parties to the Amendment to the CPPNM, planned to take place from 28 March to 1 April 2022, will review the implementation of the CPPNM as amended and its adequacy as concerns the preamble, the whole of the operative part and the annexes in the light of the then prevailing situation. Against this backdrop and in light of the evolution of nuclear security implementation and initiatives over the past 10 years, this Panel seeks to engage experts from the academia, international organizations, and non-governmental organizations, to discuss how key topics such as computer security, new and emerging threats (including insider threats), interfaces, would be reflected in a potential future revision of NSS 13 (INFCIRC/225/Revision 5).