United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 1540, recognizing proliferation as a threat to international peace and security, was adopted on 28 April 2004. The Resolution imposes binding obligations on all States to establish and maintain effective national export and trans-shipment controls to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, and their means of delivery, and to establish appropriate domestic controls over related materials to prevent their illicit trafficking. This paper highlights the experiences with establishing a nuclear export control system in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It starts from the early compliance with UNSC Resolution 1540, the provisions in the UAE Government’s paper on the “Policy of the United Arab Emirates on the Evaluation and Potential Development of Peaceful Nuclear Energy” in 2008 and the establishment of the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR) in 2009. The paper then describes the drafting of the national nuclear legislation (Federal Law by Decree No. 6 of 2009) and the main provisions of FANR-REG-09 (Regulation on the Export and Import Control of Nuclear Material, Nuclear Related Items and Nuclear Related Dual-Use Items). It also stresses the need for cooperation in the implementation of effective export controls, both at the international level and with national entities such as customs and border control authorities. The UAE’s experience with the establishment of a national nuclear export control system at the onset of its nuclear programme will be useful for nuclear newcomer countries who are in the process of enhancing their compliance with UNSC Resolution 1540 when considering the introduction of nuclear power in their countries.