Human capital development is a critical issue for the nuclear nonproliferation enterprise because projections indicate that 40% of the workforce is now eligible for retirement. Moreover, legacy and emerging issues (e.g., uranium processing and advanced reactors) abound that require a need to sustain a rich human capital to support the workforce. Consequently, aggressive efforts are needed to attract, prepare, and sustain the next generation of nuclear nonproliferation professionals. One way the United States is addressing this problem is through collaborative efforts between universities and the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) national laboratories. There are many examples of educational pathways and professional development programs at the national laboratories and at universities, which may be leveraged or used as models to advance human capital development for the nonproliferation enterprise. Nevertheless, it is necessary to continue to discover impactful strategies and tactics that also attract groups that are traditionally underrepresented in nuclear science and engineering. Thus, the intent of this paper is to offer ideas that may advance and accelerate the transition from students to nuclear nonproliferation subject matter experts (SMEs) or research scientists, as well as help attract and influence underrepresented groups to consider careers in the nonproliferation mission space.